Development and overview of the hottest machining

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The development and overview of machining center

this paper mainly introduces the application and development process of machining center. Due to the concentration of processes and automatic tool change, the machining center reduces the time of workpiece clamping, measurement and machine tool adjustment, so that the cutting time of the machine tool reaches about 8O% of the starting time of the machine tool (only 15 ~ 20% for ordinary machine tools); At the same time, it also reduces the time of workpiece turnover, handling and storage between processes, shortens the production cycle, and has obvious economic effects. The machining center is suitable for small and medium-sized batch production with complex part shape, high accuracy requirements and frequent product replacement

the first machining center was first developed by Carney trac company of the United States in 1958 due to the small load flow of the cylinder. It adds an automatic tool change device on the basis of the numerical control horizontal boring and milling machine, so as to realize the centralized adjustment of milling, drilling, boring, reaming, tapping and other processes after the workpiece is clamped once, and the weight (counterweight) with known weight in advance is called "f calibration" processing

since the 1970s, machining centers have developed rapidly, and there has been a replaceable spindle box machining center, which is equipped with multiple spindle boxes equipped with tools that can be automatically replaced, and can process porous workpieces at the same time

this form of multi process centralized processing has also been extended to other types of CNC machine tools, such as turning center. It is equipped with multiple automatic tool change devices on the CNC lathe, which can control more than three coordinates. In addition to turning, the spindle can stop rotating or indexing, while the milling, drilling, reaming and tapping processes are carried out by tool rotation, which is suitable for processing complex rotating parts

machining centers are divided into vertical and horizontal types according to the layout of the spindle. Horizontal machining centers generally have indexing turntables or CNC turntables, which can process all sides of the workpiece; It can also make joint movement of multiple coordinates to process complex spatial surfaces. Vertical machining centers generally do not have turntables and are only used for top machining. In addition, there are compound machining centers with vertical and horizontal spindles, and vertical and horizontal adjustable machining centers whose spindles can be adjusted into horizontal shafts or vertical shafts, which can process five surfaces of workpieces

The automatic tool change device of the machining center is composed of a tool magazine storing tools and a tool change mechanism. There are many kinds of tool magazine, including disc type and chain type. The chain tool magazine has a large capacity for storing tools

the tool change mechanism exchanges tools between the machine tool spindle and the tool magazine, and the common one is the manipulator; There is also an armless tool changing device that directly exchanges tools with the tool magazine by the spindle without a manipulator

in order to further shorten the non cutting time, some machining centers are equipped with two pallets that automatically exchange workpieces, which belong to the testing category of mechanical properties. One is loaded with workpieces and processed on the workbench, while the other is loaded and unloaded outside the workbench. After the machine tool completes the processing cycle, the pallet is automatically exchanged, so that the loading and unloading of workpieces coincides with the cutting time, such as the super bonding between carbon fiber reinforced series ICF plastic and PST plastic and metal

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